In order to operationalize the BPM-D Framework and its components further, the framework is transferred into a more formalized reference model. Reference models are generalized knowledge, structured and documented in a manner that enables adaptability to specific situations (Kirchmer, 2011) (Fettke, Loos, 2007).


Figure 9: Level 1 of BPM-D Process Reference Model

Figure 10: Level 2 of BPM-D Process Reference Model – Process Strategy

Figure 11: Level 3 of BPM-D Process Reference Model – Targeting Value of the Process Strategy

During the development of the BPM-D Reference Model the BPM-D Process Framework is further detailed and integrated with the other BPM-D sub-frameworks. The control flow logic is added to the functional decomposition. Key functions are linked to tools, templates or other job-aids supporting their execution.

The process framework is described on 3 levels of detail. The top level is represented as value chain diagram (VCD), level 2 and 3 as event-driven process chain (EPC). The EPC notation was selected since it is focusing on the description of the business content and has less formal requirements than other methods like the business process modelling notation (BPMN). It is in general easily understood by business practitioners. Also people used to work with other modelling methods can usually quickly adjust and understand the EPC notation. In order to support a potential automation of some of the sub-processes of the process of process management, level 3 processes are also available in BPMN (simple model conversion). These BPMN models can be used as starting point for the specification of application software supporting the PoPM. While this redundancy needs to be managed we feel that at the current point of time it helps to achieve both, easy use of the content by process practitioners and by software developers.

Figure 9 shows level 1 of the process reference model. Examples for levels 2 and 3 are represented in figures 10 and 11. On level 3 process models, for example in the model shown in figure 11, it is exactly described which BPM roles are required, what the people in those roles have to do, which data (information) they use and in which logical sequence they work. Hence, the process is sufficiently described to be implemented (Kirchmer, 2011).

The reference model is developed in a web-based process repository tool. This enables the easy access from all relevant locations and reduces tool maintenance to a minimum. It can be easily transferred into all market leading modelling and repository applications. The reference model currently consists of 67 individual information models.

The implementation and execution of the level 3 processes is further supported through the link of the models to execution tools, templates and other job aids. The sub-process “BPM Capability” of “Process Strategy” is, for example, linked to a BPM maturity assessment tool, based on the BPM-D Framework. The “Responsibility” sub-process of the “Process and Data Governance” is linked to job aids supporting the establishment of a BPM Center of Excellent with its different roles and the introduction of process and data governance to a specific end-to-end process. The reference model includes over 20 tools, templates and other job-aids.


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